Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Palaeobotany

Paper Code: 
BOT 202
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

To study the structural, developmental and economic aspects of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms.

Unit I: 

Pteridophytes I: General characters, classification, telome theory, stelar system, apogamy, apospory, origin of seed habit and heterospory, leptosporangiate and eusporangiate type of development

Unit II: 

Pteridophytes II: Important characters, classification, structure, economic importance and life history of:
Psilopsida: Psilotum
Lycopsida- Lycopodium
Sphenopsida: Equisetum
Pteropsida: Marsilea

Unit III: 

Gymnosperm I: General characters, classification, evolution of Gymnosperms, Distribution in India, Affinities of gymnosperms with Angiosperms and Pteridophytes, Economic importance.

Unit IV: 

Gymnosperm II: Important characters, classification, structure, economic importance and life history of:
Cycadopsida: Cycas
Coniferopsida: Pinus
Gnetopsida: Ephedra  

Unit V: 

Palaeobotany: Fossilization, geological time scale, fossil pteridophytes: Rhynia, Lepidodendron, fossil gymnosperms: Glossopteris, Williamsonia

Essential Readings: 
  1. Bhatnagar, SP and Moitra, A. 1996. Gymnosperms. New Age International( Pvt.) Ltd., New Delhi.
  2. Chamber Lain, C.J. Gymnosperms: Structure and Evolution .CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi.
  3. Moitra, A. 2003. Gymnosperms. New Age International (Pvt.) Ltd.New Delhi.
  4. Parihar, NS. 1996. Biology and Morphology of Pteridophytes. Central Book Depot, Allahabad.
  5. Purohit and Vyas. 1997.  A Text Book of Gymnosperms. Ramesh Book Depot, Jaipur.
  6. Sharma, OP. 1990. Text Book of Pteridophyta. McMillan India Ltd., New Delhi.
  7. Sporne, KR. 1965. The Morphology of Gymnosperms. Hutchinson and Co. Ltd., London.
  8. Vasishtha, PC. 2004. Gymnosperms Vol.V. S. Chand & Co., Delhi
  1. Singh, H. 1978. Embryology of Gymnosperms. Encyclopaedia of Plant Anatomy X. Gebruder Bortraeger, Berlin.
  2. Smith, GM. 1971. Cryptogamic Botany, Vol. II Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi.
  3. Sporne, KK. 1991. The Morphology of Pteridophytes. BI Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Bombay.
  4. Stewart, WN and Rathwell, GW. 1993. Paleobotany and the Evolution of plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  5. Trivedi, PC; Sharma, N; Dhanker, RS and Gupta, S. 2003. Diversity of Microbes and Cryptogams. Ramesh Book Depot, Jaipur.
  6. Vasishtha, PC. 2004. Gymnosperms Vol.V. S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.